Tag Archives: International Dyslexia Association

Applying for Accommodations on College Entrance Tests

IDA FACT SHEET  (International Dyslexia Association)

The application process for individuals planning to enter college can be a daunting experience. For individuals with disabilities who are requesting testing accommodations, this can be even more challenging, as it often requires assembling necessary documentation, completing additional paperwork, and anticipating deadlines. This IDA Fact Sheet gives a broad overview of the process in order to assist individuals who are requesting test accommodations on high stakes tests such as the SAT and ACT. It provides guidance about what forms to submit, how to provide sufficient disability documentation, and how to gather supplemental information if needed to support accommodation requests. Keep in mind that each testing agency sets its own requirements for requesting accommodations.

The Application Process

  • Test takers should read the test information on the program’s website. Many tests are administered on computer and incorporate functions such as a built-in calculator, clock, etc. Additionally, most testing agencies provide supplemental information or a handbook for test takers with disabilities.
  • The testing agency website will give specific information about how to apply for accommodations. This should be read carefully to determine which accommodations are necessary (e.g., additional testing time, or breaks, separate room, a reader, etc.).
  • Special Services and/or counseling staff in the student’s high school or district may be able to assist in completing the application and acquiring the required documentation.
  • Early submission of applications is important, as it’s not unusual for testing agencies to request additional scores, updated testing, or clarification, which can cause delays. This is particularly true during peak application periods.
  • Once the agency receives an application for accommodations, it may be two months before the applicant is notified. If additional testing or an appeal is needed, all this must be accomplished and submitted at least 60 days in advance of the test date.
  • Since most testing agencies no longer “flag” scores obtained under non-standard conditions, it is important to request accommodations that are needed.


  • Typically, all documentation should be sent in one complete packet. This pertains to supporting documentation (IEP, transcripts, letters re: past accommodations).
  • Testing agencies often require current documentation according to their individual “recency” criteria. For example, many testing agencies request documentation for learning disabilities to be dated within the last three to five years to reflect the test taker’s need for specific accommodations. Test takers should review the documentation guidelines posted on the website.
  • Often, a current, comprehensive evaluation is needed, as an adult version of some tests may be required. For example, most testing agencies will not accept a handwritten prescription-pad note from a doctor. Documentation should be complete, dated, signed, in English, and on official letterhead. Disability documentation should address all of the following:
    • The existence of an impairment that substantially limits a major life activity, as compared to most people in the general population
    • A diagnosis of the disability and the current impact of impairment and how it limits the student’s ability to take the test under standard conditions
    • A rationale for why the requested accommodations are necessary and appropriate. For example, if extra time is requested, the evaluation must say how much extended time should be provided and on what basis.
    • The accommodations that are requested should generally match those provided in the past.
  • Some accommodations may not require prior approval, such as braces or crutches, eyeglasses, insulin pump, etc. Lockers that can be accessed during breaks are typically provided for storage of food, water, and/or medication, if applicable.
  • If sufficient disability documentation is unavailable or outdated, it may take up to nine months in advance to find a qualified professional with a qualified professional with experience and expertise in diagnosing and documenting the disability in question. That evaluator will need relevant historical information, including:
    • Letters documenting a history of accommodations in school, such as IEPs or 504 plans, or proof of accommodations on statewide assessments.
    • A description of tutoring or coaching services provided in the past.
    • A comprehensive evaluation report for diagnosis of the disability and accommodation determination.
  • Additionally, school records from elementary and high school as well as teacher comments will help support a history of a disability. High school transcripts may provide good evidence if they showed the impact of the disability on grades (e.g., dropped classes, withdrawals, incompletes, or failing grades). It is not always the case that accommodations in the past will automatically continue. An ongoing need for accommodations can be described in a personal statement.
  • Many colleges and universities with strong school psychology programs perform evaluations at a reduced fee if a private evaluation is not feasible.

Types of Decision Letters

There are three basic types of decision letters that the testing agency sends:

  1. Approval—This type of letter will list the accommodations that have been approved.
    • Once accommodations have been approved, directions on the approval letter regarding how to schedule the test and other pertinent information.
    • Be aware that extra time may be needed to schedule the test after approval for accommodations. For example, extra time may be needed to secure a reader or scribe.
  2. Request for Additional Information—This type of letter is not a denial of the request. It specifies that the agency needs more information to complete the review.
  3. Denial—If the testing agency finds the documentation insufficient to support the accommodation request, this letter will explain the decision and will include options for requesting further review.
    • Appeal Process: Each testing agency has established a procedure to allow an appeal of its decision. The information on how to appeal a decision is typically stated in the denial letter or on the agency’s website. When the requested information is submitted, the request will be reconsidered.

Preparing for the Test

Whether or not an accommodation request is approved, it is important for the student to become familiar with the upcoming test.

  • Most testing agencies have a wide range of practice materials at no or low cost available to test takers.
  • Areas of particular focus are the test format, the types of questions used, and the test directions for each type of question. This can reduce the amount of time spent familiarizing oneself with instructions on the test day. Alternate-format practice materials can be requested if this is one of the desired accommodations.
  • The sample test questions can be practiced with and without the requested accommodations. The goal is to increase the number of questions correctly completed within the time limit. As you practice, try to increase the number of questions you can complete correctly within the time limit.
  • Test sites differ, so it is a good idea to check out the location in advance.


The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) thanks Loring Brinkerhoff, Ph.D., Nancy Cushen White, Ed.D., BCET, CALT-QI, and Diana Sauter, Ph.D., for their assistance in the preparation of this fact sheet.

© Copyright The International Dyslexia Association (IDA). For copyright information, please click here.  IDA site: https://dyslexiaida.org 

Reading / writing tutoring in Columbus OH: Adrienne Edwards 614-579-6021 or email aedwardstutor@columbus.rr.com


+ 15 Best Dyslexia Sites For 2015

 by Douglas Curtiss

(Note: this is a list compiled by Dyslexia and Unstoppable; I’m not sure what their criteria were in establishing “best,”  but this collected information is definitely useful and we thank them for it — Adrienne Edwards)

for more about them http://www.dyslexicandunstoppable.com

There are many sites available to help dyslexic children and children who are struggling with reading. Below are the top 15 sites for dyslexia for 2015. Of course we believe that www.DyslexicAndUnstoppable.com should be at the head of the list. However, in order to keep the list as objective as possible, we have decided to exclude it from the list. So without further ado…The Best Dyslexia Sites For 2015 are:

1] Understood.org – Understood.org is a website that addresses learning and attention issues. The section on dyslexia helps you understand:

  • What dyslexia is
  • What some signs and symptoms of dyslexia are
  • What skills might be affected by dyslexia
    What each profession in your child’s life can do to help your child
  • What you can do at home

In addition you are able to create a free account to personalize your experience and connect with other parents as well as experts.

Find out more https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/understanding-dyslexia

2] Yale Center For Dyslexia And Creativity

A comprehensive site from internationally known Dyslexia researchers and Yale professors, Drs. Sally and Ben Shaywitz, the YCDC offers:

  • Resources if you have dyslexia
  • Stories from other dyslexics
  • Advice on what a child can do
  • Efforts for reform in Washington, D.C.

Find out more ...http://dyslexia.yale.edu/index.html

3] Davis Dyslexia Association International

Based on the teachings of Dr. Ronald Davis, as explained in the book, The Gift of Dyslexia, this site offers:

  • Information about the Davis Dyslexia Correction
  • Where to find Davis-trained professionals
  • Links to scholarly articles about dyslexia
  • A forum connecting with other parents and experts in dyslexia

Find out more here http://www.dyslexia.com

4] Bright Solutions

This is the site started by international dyslexia expert, Susan Barton. It features:

  • A section explaining what dyslexia is
  • Explanation of classroom accommodations for dyslexic children
  • Videos and seminars given by Ms. Barton
  • An introduction to the Barton System

Find out more here http://www.dys-add.com

 5Dyslexic Advantage

Created by Drs. Brock and Fernette Eide, authors of the excellent book, The Dyslexic Advantage: Unlocking the Hidden Potential of the Dyslexic Brain, this site offers:

  • Stories of successful dyslexic people explaining why dyslexia has helped them
  • Links to conferences and webinars for parents
  • A community forum for support from like-minded parents

Find out more here http://www.dyslexicadvantage.org

 6] International Dyslexia Association

Another extremely comprehensive site offering

  • Explanations of dyslexia
  • Help for teachers
  • Upcoming conferences about dyslexia
  • Opportunities to join the IDA

Find out more here http://eida.org

7] Headstrong Nation

Started by Ben Foss, dyslexia advocate and author of The Dyslexia Empowerment Plan, this site offers:

  • Resources for adults dealing with dyslexia, including tools, assessments, and even workplace accommodations.
  • Assessments for parents to determine their child’s strengths and attitude
  • A link to find out more about Dyslexia Empowerment groups near you

Find out more here http://headstrongnation.org

 8] KidsHealth.org

This site, started by the children’s health foundation, Nemours, has great information about all aspects of children’s health. The dyslexia section includes:

  • How reading develops
  • What it is like to have dyslexia
  • Ways to make reading easier for dyslexic children

Find out more here http://kidshealth.org/kid/health_problems/learning_problem/dyslexia.html

9] Decoding Dyslexia

This is the main site for Decoding Dyslexia, a parent-led organization, with chapters in all 50 states. Their main mission is advocacy, working to have laws changed to help with dyslexia teaching and accommodations. From this main page, you can find the chapter in your state.

Find out more here http://www.decodingdyslexia.net

10] DianneCraft.org

Started by learning and nutrition expert, Diane Craft, this site offers practical tools for struggling readers, including:

  • Free videos and audios, many from workshops Ms. Craft has led
  • Lesson plans for the struggling reader and struggling speller
  • An opportunity to have a consultation with Ms. Craft

Find out more here http://www.diannecraft.org

11] Lindamood-Bell

Started by Nanci Bell and Patricia Lindamood, this site explains

  • The Lindamood-Bell approach to instruction
  • Links to learning centers in your area
  • A blog with some of the latest research into reading and dyslexia

Find out more here http://lindamoodbell.com

12] Dyslexia Action

This site contains excellent resources for parents, teachers, and even employers. The section for parents includes:

  • An opportunity for a 30 minute free consult
  • Information about assessment and screening of dyslexia
  • Links to useful learning tools and accommodations

Find out more here http://www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk

13] The Dyslexia Foundation

This site includes

  • Videos about dyslexia
  • A blog about dyslexia developments
  • A chance to become a member

Find out more here http://dyslexiafoundation.org

14] Learning Ally

The Learning Ally organization helps children with dyslexia as well as the visually impaired. Resources on their site include:

  • Help with reading
  • Advice about a multi-sensory approach
  • The use of audiobooks
  • The opportunity to sign up to be able to listen to hundreds of audiobooks

Find out more here https://www.learningally.org

15] Orton-Gillingham

This site is run by the Institute for Multisensory Education. The site:

  • Explains the Orton-Gillingham approach to teaching dyslexic children to read
  • Offers the chance to be trained in the Orton-Gillingham approach
  • Contains a comprehensive list of educational apps for reading and dyslexia

Find out more here https://www.orton-gillingham.com


source of this article by Douglas Curtiss : http://www.dyslexicandunstoppable.com/2015/09/01/15-best-dyslexia-sites-for-2015/


Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH: Adrienne Edwards 614-579-6021 or email aedwardstutor@columbus.rr.com

+ Dr. Cheesman: Some Games to Boost Math Skills

From the IDA Newsletter: By Elaine Cheesman, Ph.D.

There are times when we want kids to put down the iPad or tablet and to play traditional games (e.g., dominoes, board games, card games) with humans, particularly when the whole family is on vacation and it has been raining for days.

Playing traditional games is beneficial on many social and academic levels and can provide real-time practice for children in both reading and math skills. Research by Ramani and Siegler (2008) suggests that playing board games strengthens proficiency in foundational math tasks—counting, estimating, subitizing (i.e., the ability to perceive at a glance the number of items presented, such as on dice), recognizing written numerals, adding and subtracting, and comparing numerical sizes.

Many children with reading difficulties also struggle with math skills. Even though they may not have been formally diagnosed with dyscalculia, a learning disability related to math calculation, these individuals may display one or more of the following characteristics:

  • Use of inefficient calculation strategies
  • Difficulty memorizing basic arithmetic facts
  • Early difficulty with subtraction
  • Lack of “number sense” (e.g., comparing the relative size of two numbers—Which is greater? 3 or 9)
  • Subitizing
  • Dysfluent processing of written numbers or mathematical symbols
  • Linking written or spoken numbers to the idea of quantity
  • Difficulty understanding place value
  • Trouble learning or understanding multi-step calculation procedures (e.g., multi-digit multiplication and long division)
    This App chat reviews math websites and mobile apps that can strengthen basic math skills needed to play traditional family games as well as higher-level calculation skills. It avoids programs/apps that require extensive reading, include in-app purchases, or contain distracting images and/or audio that may disrupt the primary task.

Subitize Tree

Developer: Doodle Smith Ink
Website: www.doodlesmithink.com
This app provides subitizing practice using a variety of representations (e.g., dominoes, dice, fingers on hands, and playing cards). Players can choose a specific representation to practice, change the amount of time the images are displayed, and select the range of numbers used. Settings are intuitive and easy to use. The goal is for players to correctly subitize in order to free captive animals. One animal is freed for every four correct responses. Incorrect responses signal display of the correct response. 2


Developer: Division of Labor
Website: www.modmath.com
This free app provides virtual graph paper and a keyboard with numbers and math operation symbols for laying out equations and problems in all four operations with whole numbers and fractions. Intuitive settings enable contrasting rows and/or columns. After solving the problems, the user can save, print, and email completed worksheets.

Dexteria Dots—Get in Touch with Math

Website: www.dexteria.net
This is an intuitive math game that teaches the concepts of number sense, addition, subtraction, greater-than (>), and less-than (<). The user separates or combines dots to produce a value. For beginners, larger dots represent greater values, and smaller dots represent smaller values. There are three main options for gameplay, and each includes four levels. All levels have time limits. In addition, bonus dots are awarded, and most challenges have multiple solutions.

Ten Frame Fill

Developers: Mike Egan and Randy Hengst
Website: www.classroomfocusedsoftware.com
This app is designed to improve addition and subtraction skills in the family of 10. In this app, a ten frame is shown with tokens. The player is shown an addition problem and a complementary subtraction problem and asked, “How many more are needed to make 10?” The players can drag tokens of another color or touch the number for the correct response.

Word Problems

Developers: Mike Egan and Randy Hengst
Website: www.classroomfocusedsoftware.com
This app provides practice in simple math word problems requiring addition and subtraction with answers of 10 or less. The user can solve one of three types of equations. The user has the option to use virtual manipulatives to solve the problem and the option to show the number sentence.

X-tra Math.com

Website: www.xtramath.com
This free website helps users automatize computation skills in the four operations for problems related to decimals and fractions. Timed activities challenge the user to respond in at least ten seconds, but optimally in three seconds or less, with immediate feedback for slow or incorrect responses. Progress-monitoring graphs show responses of ten seconds, three seconds, and areas that require more practice.


Website: www.coolmath4kids.com
This free website calls itself an “amusement park” for math. It features kid-friendly information and engaging games using the four basic operations plus geometry art. The instructions require reading skills, and the visual layout may be distracting for some students. Tabs for both parents and teachers provide guidance, instructions, and options to select targeted activities. A related website for practicing pre-algebra and higher-level math is CoolMath (described below)


Website: www.coolmath.com
This free website is an extension of CoolMath4Kids (described above) that provides engaging games and information related to advanced math (e.g., pre-algebra, algebra, trigonometry, calculus), geometry art, and science. Tabs for both parents and teachers provide guidance, instructions, and options to select targeted activities.


Ramani, G. B. & Siegler, R. S. (2008). Promoting Broad and Stable Improvements in Low-Income Children’s Numerical Knowledge through Playing Number Board Games. Child Development, 79(2), 375-394.


Other Dr. Cheesman’s App Chats available:
Dr. Cheesman’s App Chat: Literacy Instruction
Dr. Cheesman’s App Chat: Spelling
Dr. Cheesman’s App Chat: Interactive Books for Kids, Teens, Adults
Dr. Cheesman’s App Chat: Holiday Gifts! (Word Games and Logic Puzzles)
Dr. Cheesman’s App Chat: Vocabulary and Morphology

Dr. Cheesman is an Associate Professor at the University of Colorado Colorado Springs. The courses she developed were among the first nine university programs officially recognized by the International Dyslexia Association for meeting the Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teachers of Reading.

Copyright © 2014 International Dyslexia Association (IDA). Visit the IDA site: http://www.interdys.org


Orton Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards 614-579-6021 or email aedwardstutor@columbus.rr.com

+ IDA Call for Papers is Open

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The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) is now ready to receive your proposal for the Annual IDA Conference on Reading, Literacy & Learning.  The conference will be held November 6-9 2013 in New Orleans.

The online submission system is a step by step process, during which you will be asked a series of questions that will

  • (a) provide detailed information for the review process, and
  • (b) provide information to be used for promotional purposes should your presentation be accepted.

Be sure to read all relevant documents prior to starting your submission, so you understand and are prepared for the process.

If you have questions, please contact Kristen Penczek, Director of Conferences, at kpenczek@interdys.org.

Submission link:  http://www.cvent.com/Surveys/Welcome.aspx?s=3e72b1aa-d05c-481d-a85e-d0a2a3e59ca1

Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH: Adrienne Edwards 614-579-6021 or email aedwardstutor@columbus.rr.com

+ Central OH: Dyslexia Information and Resource Fair NOVEMBER 10 in Columbus

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COBIDA (Central Ohio Branch of the International Dyslexia Association) will present a multi-topic informational evening, as well as a Resource Fair, in December.

  • Saturday, NOVEMBER 10, 2012
  • 6:30 to 8:30 pm
  • COSI (Center of Science and Industry)
  • 333 West Broad Street, Columbus OH

Session 1 — Special Education Advocacy, Brenda Louisin, Louisin Child Advocacy LLC

Session 2Multisensory Structured Language Education: What is it? What is Required? Jean Colner C/AOGPE, CALT,ICALP, Director, Children’s Dyslexia Center; and Kara Lee, Ed S, CALP, Intervention Specialist

Session 3Dyslexia Legislation and Other Important Statewide Efforts to Support Dyslexics Across Ohio, Charlotte Andrist, PhD, NCSP, President; Dorothy Morrison, PhD, President Elect; Martha Michael, PhD, Vice President

The Resource Fair is always a rich opportunity to see the various instructional options  and materials, as well as to meet with support groups, advocacy professionals and agencies,  and representatives from local clinics and schools.

There will also be a membership business meeting and election.

For information about COBIDA, visit http://www.cobida.org .  Become a member and join the effort!

Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards 614-579-6021 or email aedwardstutor@columbus.rr.com

+ Two Scholarships Available for IDA Conference Oct 24-27

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The 63rd annual conference of the International Dyslexia Association (IDA), themed Reading, Literacy & Learning,  is happening in Baltimore from October 24th through 27th.

Thanks to the generosity of donors, IDA is able to offer two scholarships to attend the Annual Conference for Professionals.

Applications are due by september 21st.

The Robert G and Eleanor T Hall Memorial Scholarship

IDA and School Specialty Literacy and Intervention offer a scholarship for teachers and administrators.  Originally created by IDA and Educators Publishing Service, this scholarship is in honor of EPS’s company founder, Robert G Hall and his wife, Eleanor Thurston Hall.

Scholarships will cover registration fees, a $250 travel stipend, a School Specialty Literacy and Intervention gift certificate valued at $250, and a one-year professional membership in IDA (a $95 value).  Click here for more information and to apply:  http://www.interdys.org/ewebeditpro5/upload/HallScholarship(1).pdf

IDA Annual Conference Scholarship for Teachers

IDA is pleased again to offer an additional scholarship for current educators, thanks to an anonymous donor.  This scholarship will cover the cost of registration only — for teachers, administrators, tutors and similar educators currently working in the education profession. Recipients are responsible for their own travel, hotel accommodations, and other expenses.  Immediate registration is required upon notification of acceptance.  Click here for more information and to apply:  http://www.interdys.org/ewebeditpro5/upload/TeacherScholarship(2).pdf


Orton Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards 614-579-6021 or email aedwardstutor@columbus.rr.com 

+ IDA Recommended Reading List for Professionals

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Following is an International Dyslexia Association (IDA) “Fact Sheet” for professionals, listing recommended reading relating  to issues of literacy and learning.

Brain and Learning

Berninger & Richards (2002). Brain Literacy for Educators and Psychologists.  Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Blakemore & Frith (2005).  The Learning Brain: Lessons for Education.  Hoboken NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Dehaene (2009).  Reading and the Brain: The Science and Evolution of a Human Invention.  New York: Penguin Viking.

Wolf (2007). Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain.  New York: Harper Collins.


Berkeley, Scruggs, & Mastropieri (2009).  Reading Comprehension Instruction for Students With Learning Disabilities, 1995-2006: A Meta-Analysis.  Remedial and Special Education, 31(6), 423-436.

Cain & Oakhill (Eds.) (2007).  Children’s Comprehension Problems in Oral and Written Language: A Cognitive Perspective.  New York: Guilford Press.

Cain (2009, Spring).  Making Sense of Text: Skills That Support Text Comprehension and Its Development.  Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 35(2), 11-14.

Carlisle & Rice (2003). Improving Reading Comprehension: Research-based Principles and Practices.  Baltimore MD: York Press.

McKeown, Beck & Blake (2009, Spring).  Reading Comprehension Instruction: Focus on Content or Strategies?  Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 35(2), 28-32.

Snow (2002). (Chair).  RAND Reading Study Group: Reading For Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension.  Santa Monica CA: RAND.

Sweet & Snow (2003).  Rethinking Reading Comprehension.  New York: Guilford Press.

Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

Berninger & Wolf (2009). Teaching Students with Dyslexia and Dysgraphia: Lessons from Teaching and Science.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Biancarosa & Snow (2006).  Reading Next — A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy: A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York (2nd ed.).  Washington DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Blaunstein & Lyon (2006).  Why Kids Can’t Read: Challenging the Status Quo in Education.  Boston MA: Rowan & Littlefield.

Catts & Kamhi (Eds.) (2005).  The Connections Between Language and Reading Disabilities.  Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cavey (2000).  Dysgraphia: Why Johnny Can’t Write: A Handbook for Teachers and Parents (3rd ed.)  Austin TX: PRO-ED.

Farrall (2012).  Reading Assessment: Linking Language, Literacy, and Cognition.  Hoboken NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Fisher & DeFries (2002).  Developmental Dyslexia: Genetic Dissection of a Complex Cognitive Trait.  Neuroscience, 3(10), 767-780.

Graham & Hebert (2010). Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading;  A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report.  Washington DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Grigorenko & Naples (2009).  The Devil Is In the Details: Decoding the Genetics of Reading; in Pugh & McCardle (Eds), How Children Learn to Read: Current Issues and New Directions etc. (pp 135-150).  New York: Psychology Press.

Henry & Brickley (1999). Dyslexia: Samuel T Orton and His Legacy.  Baltimore MD: International Dyslexia Association.

Hock, Brasseur, Deshler, Catts, Marquis, Mark & Stribling (2009). What Is the Reading Component Skill Profile of Adolescent Struggling Readers in Urban Schools? Learning Disability Quarterly, 32(1), 21-38.

Joshi (2004).  Dyslexia, Myths, Misconceptions and Some Practical Applications.  Baltimore MD: International Dyslexia Association.

Lyon (2005).  Dyslexia.  In Kleigman, Behrman, Jenson & Stanton (Eds.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics (18th ed.).  New York: Saunders.

Lyon & Chhabra (2004).  The Science of Reading Research.  Educational Leadership 61(6), 12-17.

Lyon, Shaywitz & Shaywitz (2003).  A Definition of Dyslexia.  Annals of Dyslexia, 53(1), 1-15.

Mather & Wendling (2012).  Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention.  Hoboken NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Moats & Dakin (2008). Basic Facts About Dyslexia and Other Reading Problems.  Baltimore MD: International Dyslexia Association.

Morsy, Kieffer & Snow (2010).  Measure for Measure: A Critical Consumers’ Guide to Reading Comprehension Assessments for Adolescents.  New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Orton, S T (1937, reprinted 1999).  Reading, Writing, and Speech Problems in Children and Selected Papers.  Baltimore MD: International Dyslexia Association.

Pennington & Gilger (1996).  How is Dyslexia Transmitted? Neural, Cognitive, and Genetic Mechanisms.  In Chase, Rosen & Sherman (Eds.), Developmental Dyslexia (pp. 41-61). Baltimore MD: York Press.

Pugh & McCardle (Eds.) (2009).  How Children Learn to Read: Current Issues and New Directions in the Integration of Cognition, Neurobiology and Genetics of Reading and Dyslexia Research and Practice.  New York: Taylor-Francis.

Shaywitz, Lyon & Shaywitz (2006).  The Role of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Understanding Reading and Dyslexia.  Developmental Neuropsychology, 30(1), 613-632.

Shaywitz (2003).  Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems At Any Level. New York: Knopf.

Shaywitz, Lyon, & Shaywitz (2006).  Dyslexia (Specific Reading Disability).  In Burg, Ingelfinger, Polin & Gershon (Eds.) Gellis & Kagan’s Current Pediatric Therapy, Vol. 17.  Philadelphia PA: WB Saunders.

Vellutino, Fletcher, Snowling, & Scanlon (2004).  Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia).  What Have We Learned In the Past Four Decades?  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 2-40.

Wolf (Ed.) (2001). Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain. Baltimore MD: York Press.


Chard, Ketterlin-Geller, Baker, Doabler & Apichatabutra (2009).  Repeated Reading Interventions for Students With Learning Disabilities: Status of the Evidence.  Exceptional Children, 75(3), 263-281.

Denton, Fletcher, Anthony & Francis (2006).  An Evaluation of Intensive Difficulties.  Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21(4), 437-480.

Kuhn, Schwanenflugel & Meisinger (2010).  Aligning Theory and Assessment of Reading Fluency: Automaticity, Prosody, and Definitions of Fluency.  Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230-251.

Miller & Schwanenflugel (2008).  A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Reading Prosody as a Dimension of Oral Reading Fluency in Early Elementary School Children.  Reading Research Quarterly, 43(4), 336-354.

Learning Disabilities

Finn, Rostherham & Hokanson (Eds.) (2002).  Rethinking Special Education for a New Century.  Washington DC: Thomas B Fordham Foundation and Progressive Policy Institute.

Fletcher, Lyon, Fuchs & Barnes (2007). Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention.  New York: Guilford Press.

Lyon (1994).  Frames of Reference for Assessment of Learning Disabilities.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Mather & Goldstein (2001).  Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors: A Guide to Intervention and Classroom Management.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Wong (Ed.). (1998).  Learning About Learning Disabilities (2nd ed.). San Diego CA: Academic Press.


Berch & Mazzocco (2007).  Why Is Math So Difficult for Some Children?  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Dehaene (2011).  The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Krasa & Shunkwiler (2009).  Number Sense and Number Nonsense: Understanding the Challenges of Learning Math.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Mazzocco (Ed.) (2011).  Mathematical Difficulties in School Age Children.  Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 37(2), 7-8.

Morphology and Etymology

Berninger, Abbott, Nagy & Carlisle (2010).  Growth in Phonological, Orthographic, and Morphological Awareness in Grades 1 to 6.  Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 39(2), 141-163.

Bowers & Kirby (2010).  Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition.  Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23(5), 515-537.

Henry (2010).  Unlocking Literacy: Effective Decoding & Spelling Instruction. (2nd ed.). Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

King (2000).  English Isn’t Crazy! The Elements of Our Language and How To Teach Them.  Baltimore MD: York Press.

Phonology, Phonological Awareness and Phonics

Brady & Skankweiler (1991).  Phonological Processes in Literacy: A Tribute to Isabelle Y Liberman.  Hilldale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Castles & Coltheary (2004).  Is There a Causal Link From Phonological Awareness to Success in Learning to Read?  Cognition, 91(1), 77-111.

Orton (1964).  A Guide to Teaching Phonics.  Winston-Salem NC: Orton Reading Center and Salem College Bookstore.

Scarborough & Brady (2002).  Toward a Common Terminology for Talking About Speech and Reading: A Glossary of the “phon” words and some related terms.  Journal of Literary Research, 34(3), 299-336.

Professional Development/Teacher Knowledge

Aaron, Joshi & Quatroche (2008).  Becoming a Professional Reading Teacher.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

International Dyslexia Association. (2010). Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teachers of Reading.  Baltimore MD: International Dyslexia Association.  Retrieved from  http://www.interdys.org/ewebeditpro5/upload/KPS3-1-12.pdf.

Lyon & Weiser (2009).  Teacher Knowledge, Instructional Expertise, and the Development of Reading Proficiency.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(5), 475-480.

Moats (1999).  Teaching Reading is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do.  Washington DC: American Federation of Teachers.

Structured Language Teaching and Instruction

Birsh (Ed.) (2011).  Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills (3rd ed.).  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Gentry & Graham (Fall 2010).  Creating Better Readers and Writers: The Importance of Direct, Systematic Spelling and Handwriting Instruction in Improving Academic Performance. [White Paper].  Retrieved from http://www.zaner-bloser.com/media/zb/zaner-bloser/pdf/5704695ed09e44ea899da3d188e51f261.pdf.

Gillingham & Stillman (1956). Remedial Training for Children With Specific Disability in Reading, Spelling and Penmanship (5th ed.) Cambridge MA: Educators Publishing Service.

Henry (2003).  Unlocking Literacy: Effective Decoding and Spelling Instruction. Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

King (2000).  English Isn’t Crazy! The Elements of Our Language and How To Teach Them.  Baltimore MD: York Press.

Lyon, Fletcher, Torgesen, Shaywitz & Chhabra (2004).  Preventing and Remediating Reading Failure: A Response to Allington.  Educational Leadership, 61(6), 86-87.

McCardle & Chhabra (2004).  The Voice of Evidence in Reading Research.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Moats (2000).  Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Moats, Dakin & Joshi (Eds.) (2012). Expert Perspectives on Interventions for Reading: A Collection of Best-practice Articles from the International Dyslexia Association.  Baltimore MD: International Dyslexia Association.

National Reading Panel (U.S.) & National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (2000).  Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and its Implications for Reading Instruction: Reports of the Sub-groups.  (NIH Publication No. 00-4754).  Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

RTI and Instruction

Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh & McGraw (2009).  RTI in the Classroom: Guidelines and Recipes for Success.  New York: Guilford Press.

Denton, Fletcher, Anthony & Francis (2006).  An Evaluation of Intensive Difficulties.  Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21(4), 437-480.

Fletcher, Denton, Fuchs & Vaughan (2005).  Multi-tiered Reading Instruction: Linking General Education and Special Education.  In  Richardson, Gilger & International Dyslexia Association (Eds.), Research-based Education and Intervention: What We Need to Know (pp. 21-43.)  Baltimore MD: International Dyslexia Association.

Foorman & Torgesen (2001).  Critical Elements of Classroom and Small-group Instruction Promote Reading Success in All Children.  Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(4), 203-212.

Fuchs & Fuchs (2006).  Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, Why, and How Valid Is It?  Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 93-99.

Haager, Klingner & Vaughn (Eds.) (2007).  Evidence-based Reading Practices for Response to Intervention.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes.

Scammacca, Roberts, Vaughn, Edmonds, Wexler, Reutebuch et.al. (2007).  Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-analysis With Implications for Practice.  Portsmouth NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.  Retrieved from: http://www.centeroninstruction.org/interventions-for-adolescent-struggling-readers-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for-practice.

WETA (with the National Association of School Psychologists) (2005).  Reading Rockets: Toolkit for School Psychologists.  Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/professionals/schoolpsychologists#toolkit.


Beck, McKeown & Kucan (2002).  Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

Cain & Oakhill (2011). Matthew Effects in Young Readers: Reading Comprehension and Reading Experience Aid Vocabulary Development. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(5), 431-443.

Wagner, Muse & Tannenbaum (Eds.) (2006).  Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension.  New York: Guilford Press.


Berninger, Abbott, Abbott, Graham & Richards (2003).  Writing and Reading: Connections Between Language by Hand and Language by Eye.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(1), 39-56.

Graham (2006).  Strategy Instruction and the Teaching of Writing: A Meta-analysis.  In MacArthur, Graham & Fitzgerald (Eds.). Handbook of Writing Research (pp. 187-207).  New York: Guilford Press.

Graham (Winter 2009-2010).  Want to Improve Children’s Writing? Don’t Neglect Their Handwriting.  American Educator, 33(4), 20-27, 40.

Graham & Harris (2005).  Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties.  Baltimore MD: Paul H Brookes

Graham & Hebert (2010).  Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading.  A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report.  Washington DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.  Retrieved from http://carnegie.org/fileadmin/Media/Publications/WritingtoRead_01.pdf

Graham & Perin (2007). Writing Next: Effective Strtegies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools — A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York.  Washington DC: Alliance for Excellence for Excellent Education.

Graham & Perin (2007).  A Meta-analysis of Writing Instruction for Adolescent Students.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 445-476.

Haynes & Jennings (2006).  Listening and Speaking: Essential Ingredients for Teaching Struggling Writers.  Perspectives in Language and Literacy, 32(2), 12-16.

Jennings & Haynes (2006).  Essay Writing: An Attainable Goal for Students with Dyslexia.  Perspectives on Language and Lieteracy, 32(2), 36-39.

Jennings & Haynes (2002). From Talking to Writing: Strategies for Scaffolding Expository Expression.  Prides Crossing MA: Landmark Foundation.  http://www.landmarkschool.org.  Outreach link.

Mather, Wendling & Roberts (2009).  Writing Assessment and Instruction for Students With Learning Disabilities.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Note: The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) says Barbara A. Wilson and IDA’s Basic Fact Sheet Committee assisted in the  preparation of this fact sheet.

Tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards  614-579-6021 or email aedwardstutor@columbus.rr.com