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From their Advanced Language Tool Kit, by Paula D. Rome and Jean S. Osman, here are some of the “roots” from which our language is built. They write
The English language has evolved using innumerable root forms that come primarily from Anglo-Saxon, Latin, and Greek languages. These roots combine with different prefixes and suffixes to make many thousands of words used in everyday language, as well as words used in more advanced and technical language.
Most of the words from Latin and Greek follow phonetic patterns. In most of these, the vowel pronunciation are regularly phonetic but some change when affixes are added.
Some words have more than one form or spelling, e.g. mit and miss, pel and puls — and cede and ceed and sede and cess.
The authors feel that students who are ready for this level of language-structure information should be introduced to two or three possibilities at the same time.
Feel free to vary the order of the following list. Consider the student’s interests, and the subjects he or she is studying.
port — tract — rupt — fer — fus — ject — vert/vers — pel/vers — ply/plic — tain/ten/tent/tin — clud/clus — cur — dic/dict — flect/flex — form — gress/grad — mit/mis — pend/pens — pos/posit — scrib/script — spect/spec/spic — struct — tend/tens/tent — vent/ven — voc/vok — ced/ceed/cess — fix — claim/clam — duct/duc — fect/fic/fict — fin — act — quir/quis/quest — sent/sens — spir — vis/vid — caus/cus — cept/ceiv/ceit — lect/leg/lig — mot/mob/mov — nat — put — sist — stant/stanc — stitu — strict/string/strain — test — numer — capt/capit — cid/cis — gest — junct/join/joint — jur/jud/just — ord/ordin — pass — rect/reg — sum/sumpt — [and there are more in the book — a supplementary list…]
Obviously, say Rome and Osman, some roots occur more often and combine more frequently with affixes. So introduce those first. Add new roots as those are mastered.
About the Language Tool Kits
The Language Tool Kit was first published by EPS in 1972.
The Advanced Language Tool Kit (2000, 1999) by Paula D. Rome and Jean S. Osman is published by Educators Publishing Service. ISBN 0-8388-0549-3. The Advanced Tool Kit provides an overview of the structure, organization and sound units needed to develop skills for advanced reading and spelling.
The “Kit” focuses on syllable patterns and on words combining affixes and roots. Most teacher training programs don’t teach language analysis, but the authors hope this information will provide what you need.
Don’t be afraid to tell your student that teachers don’t always know everything. Say “I’m not sure why that word is spelled/pronounced that way, but I’ll find out for us.”
This great book is based on Orton-Gillingham methods. It offers
- sound/syllable, root, and affix cards
- elements of a teaching program
- how to work with older students
- multisensory approaches
- drill procedures (working with the cards)
- suggestions for working with groups
- procedures for teaching reading
- procedures for teaching spelling
- syllable patterns and syllable division rules
- accent and schwa
- lesson planning
- teaching grammar
- rote memory words
In addition there are checklists of these elements, accent placement rules, lesson plans and a review of diagramming systems.
Educators Publishing Service: visit http://www.epsbooks.com
tutoring in Columbus OH: Adrienne Edwards 614-579-6021 or email firstname.lastname@example.org