Category Archives: > K-12 Topics/Teaching

+ Random House Teacher Awards for Literacy

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Random House Bertelsmann, in partnership with The Random House Foundation, Inc. will present its Teacher Awards for Literacy this year at the November National Council of Teacher of English (NCTE) conference.  The awards recognize innovative projects in support of cultivating literacy and lifelong readers.

The Random House teacher awards recognize the nation’s most dynamic and resourceful teachers who use their creativity to inspire and successfully instill a love of reading in students.

The winning teachers will be awarded grants to help make their innovative reading programs possible.

  • First Place $10,000
  • Second Place $5,000
  • Third Place $2,500

The awards will be presented by National Book Award (NBA) winning author Jonathan Kozol at the NCTE conference on November 16, 2012.

Winners will be notified in advance of the annual NCTE meeting.  In addition to the giant monies noted above, the First Place winner’s conference registration, travel and lodging will be covered.

For details go to


  • Eligibility:  Fulltime or part-time teacher of students in grades K-12; teachers in public schools in the United States (private and parochial schools are not eligible)
  • Criteria (must meet all or some):  Teachers who foster a passion and love of reading through programs and curricula that are innovative  (perhaps multimedia, interdisciplinary, or interactive), original and have measurable success; who take risks in presenting books and literature in a unique way; who are committed to reluctant readers and are visionary in methods of reaching them; who create distinctive programs and activities that support and promote a community of readers.
  • Award: $10,000, $5,000, and $2,500 grant awards for use by the teacher and made payable to their respective schools; $2,500 in Random House Inc. titles for their respective schools; transportation, lodging and conference registration to attend the Awards breakfast at the NCTE conference in Las Vegas on Nov. 16, 2012 to the First Place winner only; multimedia coverage of the winning teachers and schools via the Random House, Inc website, press releases and newsletters.
  • Evaluation: The Foundation’s Director and consulting educators will review all applications and send the strongest to a committee of selected Random House executives, authors and educators who will determine final winners; winners to be announces by October 15, 2012 and posted at
  • Application process: Complete the Application Form — either the “self-nominating section” or the “nominating someone else” section; attach two letters of support, each not to exceed one page, one from parent or student and the other from a supervisor or peer (if nominated by someone else supervisor or peer letter is not necessary); attach professional resume; submit by September 1, 2012. 

Jonathan Kozol

Jonathan Kozol is the National Book Award-winning author of “Death at an Early Age.”  On that day he will also discuss and sign his new book “Fire in the Ashes: Twenty-Five Years Among the  Poorest Children in America,” which draws on his decades of work with children in inner-city schools.


Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH: Adrienne Edwards  614-579-6021 or email  

+ New: Free MA in Education at American Museum of Natural History

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An article in the NY Times explains that the American Museum of Natural History will introduce its first Master of Arts in teaching program. 

According to Douglas Quenqua, they are looking for a small group of science majors, no teaching experience needed, to spend 15 months learning to become science teachers.

Tuition is free, thanks to the New York State Board of Regents.  Students will receive $30,000 stipends and health benefits.

President of the museum Ellen V. Futter says “We’re looking for people who want to make a career of teaching and stay in the business, whether they be just out of college or former participants in a volunteer corps or career changers or veterans.”

The program aims to produce 50 new science teachers over two years for the state’s middle and high schools, which are coping with a critical shortage of math and science instructors.

The catch is that graduates must commit to spending four years teaching in a high-needs public school; they may be assigned anywhere in New York State.

At an open house which drew about 90 people, the museum had an opportunity to pitch the program.  They also had to sell the concept of museum-as-classroom.

Question and answer sessions were held in the Astor Turret, a cylindrical, high-ceiling room that overlooks Central Park West.  Then Rosamund Kinzler, director of science education at the museum, led participants through the gem and minerals collection.

“The courses will be graduate-level science courses,” said Kinzler, “but they’ll be taught specifically with an eye toward preparing individuals to teach science in the classroom.”

Students will study and eventually teach planets and their orbits, water and weather, and basic geology.  The physical environment of New York — including Central Park across the street — will also play an important role in the courses.

Andrea Lewis, principal of Murry Bergstraum High School for Business and Careers in Manhattan, is happy about the program. 

She says “I’m looking to find teachers who can bring the exterior world into the classroom, take their kids outside the building, to really learn how to analyze, and hopefully get involved wtih science because of the experience they’ve had.”

For the entire article, visit

Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards, 614-579-6021 or email

+ Spelling Facts from IDA

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From IDA, the “Spelling Fact Sheet,”which was prepared by IDA with the help of Louisa Cook Moats, Ed.D.   Following are some of the points in the paper. 

How common are spelling difficulties?

Spelling is difficult for many people, but there is much less research on spelling than on reading to tell us how many people spell poorly (or believe they spell poorly).  

We know less about spelling competence in the general population than we know about reading achievement.  Why? — because there is no national test for spelling.  In addition, many states do not test students’ spelling skills.

But almost all dyslexic people struggle with spelling and face serious obstacles in learning to cope with spelling problems.  Many individuals with dyslexia eventually learn to read fairly well, but spelling (and handwriting) difficulties can persist as long as one lives.

And so instruction, accommodations, task modifications and understanding may be required from those who teach or work with these students.

What causes spelling problems?

A mistaken (but common) belief is that poor visual memory for the sequences of letters is at the root of the problem.  But recent research shows that general visual memory plays a minor role in learning to spell.

Spelling problems, just like reading problems, originate in language learning weaknesses.  We all know people with excellent visual memory for pictures, color schemes, design elements, mechanical drawings, who cannot seem to spell.  The kind of visual memory necessary for spelling is closely “wired in” to the language processing networks in the brain.

A poor speller has trouble remembering letters in words.  That is because he or she can’t notice — then remember — then recall — the features of language that those letters represent.

Such students have weaknesses in the underlying language skills that can perceive individual sounds in words.  Often you can hear that in their cluttered or garbled oral speech.  Those misapprehensions will show up in their written productions.  We spell what we hear.

Spelling ability, like other aspects of dyslexia, is influenced by inherited traits.  While some of us are born to be better spellers,   those who aren’t can be helped by good instruction and accommodations.

Diagnosis of spelling problems

Simple tests of phoneme awareness and letter naming can predict later spelling problems (reading problems as well).  The earlier these tests are administered, the better.  

When students struggle to remember spelling words a standardized spelling test should be given.  This type of test will identify which sounds, syllable patterns or meaningful word parts the student does not understand or remember.  A spelling diagnostic test (developmental spelling inventory) will tell a teacher exactly which consonant, vowel, syllable and word spelling the student needs to learn.

In addition, students should be tested on their knowledge of the most commonly used and written words. 

How do children learn to spell?

Children gradually develop insight into how words are represented by letters as they progress through preschool, kindergarten, and first grade.  The process moves most quickly and successfully if instruction in sounds and letters is systematic, explicit, and structured.  Multisensory instruction (tracing letters, manipulating letter tiles) is necessary as well.

Children should learn that words are made up of separate speech sounds, and gradually be taught  how certain patterns work.  They will then notice recurring sequences of letters that form syllables, word endings, word roots, prefixes and suffixes.

Memories for whole words are formed much more quickly when children have a sense of language structure, and are given enough practice writing the words.

Is our English spelling system predictable?

The spelling system of our language is not crazy or unpredictable.  We can teach it as a system that makes sense. 

  • Nearly 50 percent of English words are predictable based on sound/letter correspondence alone.  Think of the words “slab,” “pitch,” and “boy.”
  • An additional 37 percent of our words are almost predictable except for one of its sounds:  think of “knit,” or “boat.”
  • A third type of information informs students about word origin (French, Latin, Greek, Old English). Information about word meaning. can also offer a clue to the spelling of a word.
  • In fact, only four percent of English words are truly irregular and may have to be learned through whole word memorization.  (We use a method of tracing and saying letters in order to cement them in long-term memory.)

So it is possible to approach spelling instruction with confidence that the system by and large makes sense.  You can reassure your students that won’t be guessing blindly any more; they will be learning to make correct spelling predictions.

Implications for teaching

Spelling instruction that explores word structure, origin and meaning is the most effective, even for dyslexic students with word recall problems.

Students who have learned the connections between word sounds and letters,  who have become acquainted with recurring letter patterns in English syllables, and who understand meaningful word parts such as prefixes, final syllables and suffixes, can gain proficiency in remembering whole words.

Classroom spelling programs should be organized to teach a progression of regular spelling patterns.  Note that after first grade, spelling instruction should follow and complement decoding instruction for reading.  Children should be able to read the words in their spelling lesson  (most learners can read many more words than they can spell).

Understanding correspondences between sounds and letters comes first.  Before spelling a word, a student should be able to orally take the sounds of the word apart.  Do one syllable at a time if it’s a multi-syllable word.  After recalling the letters that spell the sounds in each syllable, the student can recall the letters that spell those sounds.

Students should learn the patterns of the English language’s six basic syllable types, since those patterns represent vowel sounds in predictable ways.

Finally, students should be taught a few basic rules for adding endings to words, such as when letters should be doubled, when y is changed to i, and when to drop silent e.

Practice a few (only a few) irregular words — sight words — every lesson.  These are words that don’t “play fair,” such as come, they, their, who.    This can be done by tracing and saying the letters, building the words with letter tiles, copying and writing in sentences.  As such words are learned, help the student to build fluency by offering word and sentence dictation.  Have students keep a list of their own particular “spelling demons” to help them with future proofreading.

Note: it’s important that students learn words for writing and not just for spelling tests.  Transfer words into everyday writing.  Also teach a proofreading procedure that checks one element at a time: capitalization, organization, punctuation, spelling.

Be aware that computer spell-checkers are not helpful unless the student has already achieved basic spelling skill (about a fifth-grade level) and unless the student receives other proofreading help.  Spell-checkers don’t identify all errors.

Accommodations and task modifications

Dyslexic students should be offered these accommodations and modifications:

  • written work can be graded primarily on content
  • correct spellings can be written over the incorrect one; limit rewrites to a reasonable amount
  • provide proofreading assistance
  • encourage students to dictate their thoughts before writing; give them spellings of key content words to use
  • allow students in intermediate grades and higher to type exams and papers (or to use a voice-translation device)
  • encourage students to hand in early drafts of research papers and essays, to allow for revision before grading.

This information was taken from a”Just the Facts” sheet on SPELLING from the International Dyslexia Association. As mentioned above, this one was prepared with the assistance of Louisa Cook Moats, Ed.D.   It was included in the latest newsletter.  For more Fact Sheets, on a wide-ranging array of issues, visit the IDA website at

Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards  614-579-6021 or email

+ OH Legislature Passes Dyslexia House Bill 96!

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House Bill 96 clarifies the definition of learning disabilities in the Ohio Revised Code to specifically include dyslexia.

 House Bill 96 also creates a pilot project at the Ohio Department of Education including one urban, one suburban, and one rural school district to forge a partnership with the local library system to provide early screening and intervention services for children. Existing funds within the Ohio Department of Education will be used to pay for these screenings, and the inclusion of libraries will help ease the financial burden on school districts.
Next Steps:
House Bill 96 goes to OH Governor John Kasich for his signature.
Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH  614-579-6021  or email

+ Khan Academy Takes YouTube Approach to Classrooms

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An article by Somini Sengupta in the NY Times describes a classroom in which the teacher wanders the room and watches each math student do their work.  He’s watching their work as it appears on the laptop he carries.

He sees a  girl zipping through her geometry exercises; he notices that one boy is stuck on long equations.  Another boy, he sees, is getting a handle on probability.

The software that has made this possible is the brainchild of Salman Khan, an Ivy League-trained math whiz and the son of an immigrant single mother.

Khan, 35, is the online sensation whose Khan Academy math and science lessons on YouTube have attracted up to 3.5 million viewers a month.

This new venture is more ambitious, and is still being tested.

This semester at least 36 schools nationwide are trying out Khan’s experiment — according to Sengupta, “splitting up the work of teaching between man (sic) and machine, and combining teacher-led lessons with computer-based lectures and exercises.”

Hundreds of companies are trying to sell their products to school systems, making confusing claims and offering big contracts.

“Why shouldn’t it be free?”

But Khan’s venture stands out, in that the lessons and software tools are entirely free.  They’re available to anyone with access to a reasonably fast Internet connection.

The core of our mission is to give material to people who need it.  You could ask ‘why should it be free?’  But why shouldn’t it be free?

Says Sengupta, it is too early to know whether the Khan Academy software makes a real difference in learning.

A limited study in Oakland this year suggests that children who had fallen behind in math can catch up equally well if they used the software or were tutored in small groups.

The research firm SRI International is working on an evaluation of the software in the classroom.

For the entire article, and more about Khan’s background and the impact of his model, visit

Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards  614-579-6021 or email

+ Math Disability: Problem Linking Quantities to Numbers

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From Science Daily, October 24,  a report that children who start elementary school with difficulty associating small exact quantities of items with the printed numerals that represent those quantities are more likely to develop a math-related learning disability.

A study supported by the National Institutes of Health suggests that the children in the study who appeared to have difficulty grasping the fundamental concept of exact numerical quantities — that the printed number 3 represents three dots on a page, for example — went on later to be diagnosed with math learning disability by fifth grade.

There were other factors correlated with a math learning disability as well. 

These children had difficulty recalling answers to single-digit addition problems.   They were distractible in class.  And they had difficulty understanding that more complex math problems can be broken down into smaller problems.

While the math learning disabled children did make limited progress in subsequent grades, by fifth grade they had not caught up to their typically achieving peers in the ability to recall number facts, or in their ease of adding sets of dots and numerals together. 

Math disabled students did catch up in other areas, researchers noted, such as the use of counting to solve problems.

The researchers do not know whether the factors they identified caused the children’s math learning disability or whether they were linked to other unidentified factors: the study was not designed to prove cause and effect.

Says Kathy Mann Koepke, PhD, of NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National  Insititute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), which funded the study

The search for factors underlying difficulty learning mathematics is extremely important.  Once we identify such factors, the hope is that we can modify them through appropriate teaching methods to help people who have difficulty learning and using math.

Math skills are important for higher education and for entry into many higher paying technical fields.  Math skills have many health implications.  For example, many American adults lack even the basic math skills necessary to estimate the appropriate number of calories in their diets or to calculate the time intervals at which to take their medicine.

Dr. Mann Koepke directs the NICHD’s Mathematics and Science Cognition and Learning Development and Disorders program.

The study was conducted by Mary K Hoard, PhD, Laura Nugent, Drew H Bailey and David C Geary, PhD, all of the University of Missouri, Columbia.  Their findings appear in the Journal of Educational Psychology.

Dr. Geary says

Our findings suggest that children who generally struggle with math — the low achievers — may have a poor sense of numbers, but they can narrow the achievement gap in part because most of them can memorize new math facts and, thus, learn some aspects of math as quickly as their typically achieving peers.

He adds that, in contrast to the simply low achievers, students with a math learning disability not only have a poor concept of numbers, but also have difficulty memorizing math facts.

Mann Koepke feels that clarifying the factors that contribute to a math learning disability may lead to the development of teaching methods that help students overcome difficulties with number concepts and skills.  It’s important to identify potential difficulties early, when chances for successfully overcoming them are greatest.


Other NICHD-funded investigators have also identified basic risk factors for math learning disability.

These researchers have shown that math skills are linked to the “approximate number system,” a person’s intuitive ability to estimate quantities or identify the approximate number in a set.

One study of grade school children showed that this ability is impaired in children with a math learning disability.

A related study showed that difficulty with estimating such quantities is apparent in children as young as 3, and is correlated with later poor math performance in school.  Researchers do not know if the ability to distinguish between small, exact quantities is related to the approximate number system.

For the complete story in Science Daily, visit, which is my source.

 Orton-Gillingham tutoring in Columbus OH: Adrienne Edwards 614-579-6021 or email

+ Writing Exercise

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From The Writers Almanac, a bonus.

Favorite Writing Exercise:  “I like to read a poem to my students (one easy to take in by ear, one that I think is rich with possibility, one not too long but long enough for everyone to find a word or phrase or something that catches imagination) and I tell them to jot down something from or about the poem. After that, we write for ten minutes or so and see what happens.”

– Joyce Sutphen

tutoring in columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards  614-579-6021 or email

+ Teach Students to Ask Questions

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From the Harvard Education Newsletter, an article by Dan Rothstein and Luz Santana details the “Question Formulation Technique” (QFT) they have developed at the Right Question Institute.

Educators at the Right Question Institute have developed a step-by-step process that helps students learn how to produce questions, improve them and strategize ways to use them in their learning.

Four Essential Rules for Producing Questions

  1. Ask as many questions as you can.
  2. Don’t stop to discuss, judge or answer them.
  3. Write every question down exactly as stated.
  4. Change any statement into a question.

Improve the Questions

  1. Categorize each question as “open-ended” or “closed-ended.”
  2. Name the advantages and disadvantages of each type of question.
  3. Change questions from open-ended to closed-ended or the other way around.

Prioritize the Questions

  1. Choose the three most important questions.
  2. Discuss why you chose these three as the most important.

Next Steps: How to Use the Questions

  1. To learn something for a test?
  2. To develop a research or science project?
  3. To analyze a word problem?
  4. To think more deeply about a reading assignment?
  5. To write an essay?
  6. To develop a research project?
  7. To prepare an interview?
  8. Or to simply get yourselves “unstuck?”

Teachers: Six Key Steps

Step One — Teacher designs a “Question Focus.”  The Right Question Institute calls this the “QFocus.”  

The QFocus is a prompt presented in the form of a statement or a visual/audio aid.  The QFocus attracts students’ attention and stimulates the formation of questions. 

Note that it is NOT a teacher’s question.  It’s simply a focus for students to use to on their own, to identify and explore a wide range of themes and ideas. 

For example, after learning about the 1804 Haitian Revolution, the prompt might be a statement: “Once we were slaves.  Now we are free.”

Step Two — Students produce questions.   Using the four rule protocol outlined above, students create questions without assistance from the teacher. 

Before they begin, the teacher introduces the rules and encourages discussion of possible challenges in following them.  Students should discover that these rules enable them to think more broadly than they might have otherwise.

Step Three — Students Improve their Questions.  Analyzing the differences between questions that are open-  and closed-ended, and changing them from one to the other, helps students refine and polish their questions. 

The teacher begins by defining  “closed-ended” versus “open-ended” questions.  Students are then able to categorize their own into one of the two. 

Step Four — Students Prioritize  their Questions.  With the lesson plan in mind the teacher offers guidelines for choosing priority questions.  If it’s an introduction to a unit, “Choose the three questions you most want to explore.”

If students are designing a science experiment, say “Choose three testable questions.  To prepare an essay related to a piece of fiction, “…three questions related to the key themes we’ve already identified in the piece.”

Rothstein and Santana stress that during this phase students are moving from “thinking divergently” to “thinking convergently.”  They are able to zero in on the locus of their inquiry in order to plan concrete action steps.

Step Five — Students and Teachers Decide on the Next Steps.   By this point, students and teachers can work together to determine how to use the questions they selected.

They might rank them, for example, to choose the topic for a seminar discussion, or for the essay, or to make a final decision on the theory of their research project.    

Step Six — Students Reflect on What They Have Learned.  The teacher reviews the steps and gives students a chance to reflect on what they learned by the six steps: producing, improving and prioritizing their questions.

Students benefit from the completely transparent QFT process.  It helps students see what they’ve done and how it contributed to their think and learning.  The goal is to internalize the process and apply it in many other settings.

Teachers Say

Teachers who deploy the QFT have noticed three important changes in classroom culture and practices.  They say that using it consistently increases participation in group and peer learning.  Classroom management has improved.  And they have been able to address educational inequities by getting more students engaged.

Rothstein and Santana have heard teacher say that their traditional practice of saying “Do you have any questions?” never got much response.  Sharif Muhammad, in Roxbury Massachusetts, found that after using the six-step process he was struck by “how the students went farther, deeper, and asked questions more quickly than ever before.”

The big change for teachers is that — now — students will be asking the questions.  The teacher’s role is simply to facilitate that process.  It’s a change for students as well. 

It may take a minimum of 45 minutes for students to go through all the steps the first time.  But as students gain experience, teachers find that using the QFT gives them the ability to run through the process very quickly, sometimes in 10 to 15 minutes — even when working in groups.   

Rothstein and Santana write

The QFT provides a deliberate way to help students cultivate a skill that is fundamentally important for all learning.  Teaching this skill in every classroom can help successful students to go deeper in their thinking and encourage struggling students to develop a new thirst for learning.  Their questions will have much to teach us.

My sole source: Dan Rothenstein and Luz Santana’s article in the Harvard Education Letter, September/October 2011. 

Rothstein and Santana are codirectors of the Right Question Institute and the authors of the forthcoming book Make Just  One Change: Teach Students to Ask Their Own Questions.  It will be published by Harvard Education Press in September 2011.  Visit

tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards  614-579-6021  or email

+ Central Ohio: Upper Arlington Dyslexia Talk

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A Columbus group called UA-KID (Upper Arlington – Kids Identified with Dyslexia) announces its September Speaker Series.
On Thursday September 15th, Dr. Stephen Guy will address “Why They Don’t Show What They Know: Understanding and Helping the Student with Executive/Regulatory difficulties.”
  • Thursday, September 15
  • 7:00 pm
  • Upper Arlington Main Library – Friend’s Theater.

posted by Debbie Segor on Cobida/Facebook

tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards  614-579-5021  or email

+ Teachers: Primary Resources at the Library of Congress

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Teachers can subscribe to a free quarterly newsletter, “Teaching with Primary Resources (TPS) Quarterly,”  offered by the Library of Congress.  Visit

In the most recent online issue, Danna Bell-Russel writes “Beyond Typescript and Photographs: Using Primary Resources in Different Formats.”

Bell-Russel is a reference librarian and archivist working in the Educational Outreach Division of the Library of Congress.  She answers questions from teachers who want to help their students engage in real inquiry, construct knowledge  and develop critical thinking skills.

She hopes to encourage teachers to use a wider range of formats than the standard photographs and photocopied documents so widely available.

Among the Library of Congress’s digitized collections are materials that students can use to explore multiple points of view and the varying documentary methods people have implemented throughout history.

Handwritten Manuscripts 

Before email and tweeting existed — people relied on pen and paper to document their experiences. 

Handwritten manuscripts offer unique and intimate perspective on historical events.  While some of the Library’s manuscripts have been transcribed, there is excitement and insight available when viewing a person’s original writing.

Bell-Russel suggests that students might value letters from Civil War participants and their families.  One of the collections is called “A Civil War Soldier in the Wild Cat Regiment.”  This collection includes letters to and from Tilton C. Reynolds, who was a member of the 105th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers.  His correspondence documents the difficulties faced by the soldiers, and even covers his prisoner-of-war experiences among his Confederate captors.

Also available  is Orlando Gray’s letter describing the Battle of Williamsburg.  

“A Teacher’s Guide to Analyzing Manuscripts” is also available.  And students can complete the “Primary Source Analysis Tool,” in order to document and organize their thinking.   Bell-Russel suggests that the question, “How did Confederates view the Battle of Williamsburg,” could lead to analyzing manuscripts written by soldiers on the opposing side.

Posters, Prints and Drawings

Search the Library’s “Prints and Photographs Online Catalog.” This collection includes architectural drawings, baseball cards and cartoon drawings.

The WPA Poster Collection collects the posters commissioned to tell communities about upcoming events, healthcare messages and other information during the Depression.    Of course, teachers can use the Teacher’s Guide to Analyzing Photographs and Prints.  Students might create their own posters to highlight current issues.

History and the Movies

Before YouTube and Hulu, films were black and white, and some were silent.  Films provide a visual moving reminder of the ways people lived and thought at that time.

Check out The Spanish-American War in Motion Pictures, or Raising Old Glory Over Morro Castle.  Of course, there is a Teacher’s Guide.

Oral Histories

The Library of Congress has a number of oral history collections such as American Life Histories, Born in Slavery, and Voices From the Days of Slavery which provide stories of life during the Civil War, Reconstruction and the early 20th century.

The Veteran’s History Project collects stories of American war veterans — from World War I to current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.  Students can read transcripts when available as they listen to interviews.

Historic Sheet Music and Sound Recordings

Check out the selections from the Historic Sheet Music Collection, 1800-1922.  Collections also include musical and spoken word sound recordings.  The Library also has several “folklife” collections that feature sound recordings of people’s songs, stories and history.  One example is Voices from the Dust Bowl.


 Maps are portable and provide images that document places at certain times in history.  They give visual documentation of terrain and claimed territory, environmental characteristics and more.  They can offer clues to a particular mapmaker’s point of view. 

Student might choose “A mapp of Virginia discovered to ye hills.”    There are Railroad maps, “Broadside and Printed Ephemera.”

“Endless Instructional Possibilities”

Bell-Russel suggests that teachers will find millions of digitized items to be used by students across all grade levels and subjects.

For assistance, she suggests that teachers check out the self-guided professional development modules, Themed Resources for Teachers, web guides developed by the Library’s Digital Reference Section, or Ask a Librarian.

sole source: Danna Bell-Russel’s article in the current TPS Quarterly from the Library of Congress.  Bell-Russel is an Educational Resources Specialist at the Library of Congress. 

She previously served as a member of the Library’s Digital Reference Section, the first reference division created to specifically answer questions about the online resources found on

tutoring in Columbus OH:  Adrienne Edwards  614-579-6021  or email